We review and integrate research examining the extent to which the American identity is implicitly granted or denied to members of different ethnic groups. The propensity to deny the American identity to members of ethnic minorities is particularly pronounced when targets individuals or groups are construed through the lenses of ethnic identities.
Michelle Peruche Ashby Plant This article was downloaded by: Ashby Plant Published online: To cite this article: The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information.
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Michelle Peruche and E. In addition, officers with negative compared to more positive beliefs about the criminality of Black people were more likely to tend toward shooting unarmed Black suspects on a shooting simulation.
However, officers with positive contact with Black people in their personal lives were particularly able to eliminate these biases with training on the simulation.
The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the training of law enforcement personnel. For many, the concern is that police officers are Butz, These examinations have revealed that people more likely to focus on minority group members, particularly are more likely to mistakenly decide that a Black suspect is in Black and Latino people, in their investigations, leading them possession of a weapon compared to a White suspect.
For ex- to target minority group members when making decisions ample, in the work conducted by Correll and colleagues about behaviors such as traffic stops, searches, and question-undergraduate students completed a computer simu- ing.
There is also concern that police officers may be more lation where they had to decide whether to shoot at a male aggressive in their responses to minority compared to White suspect who appeared on the computer screen.
Their decision suspects Lusane, ; Quinney, Such responses was supposed to be based upon whether the suspect was may be influenced by stereotypic expectations. For example, holding a gun or neutral object e. The it is possible that the stereotype that Black men are more results indicated that college students were more likely to likely to be violent and hostile may create expectations that misinterpret neutral objects as weapons and mistakenly shoot Black people, particularly Black men, are more likely to be when the suspect was a Black person compared to a White violent criminals than are White people Brigham, ; person.
Plant and her colleagues cisions about the amount of force necessary to restrain a sus- asked undergraduate participants to complete a computer pect and whether to shoot a suspect. The decision was based on whether a gun Correspondence should be addressed to E.
Ashby Plant, Department of or a neutral object was present in the picture. Upon initial exposure This in turn may lead to a more aggressive response from the to the program, participants were more likely to mistakenly law enforcement officer toward Black suspects compared to shoot unarmed Black suspects than unarmed White suspects.
Also, if a law enforcement officer believes However, after extensive practice with the program where the that a Black person is more likely to be a dangerous criminal race of suspect was unrelated to the presence of a weapon, than is a White person, the officer may be more likely to sub- this racial bias was eliminated immediately after training and ject Black suspects compared to White suspects to searches 24 hr later.Jun 27, · A study by Plant and Peruche () seemed to address this issue quite well in the context of police officers and (split-second) decisions in shooting criminal suspects.
The . Plant and Peruche () conducted studies with police of ﬁ cers as participants and found similar results: initial bias that could quickly be . Why Don't We Practice What We Preach? A Meta-Analytic Review of Religious Racism (since the civil rights act; Hall, Marx & Wood, ) Religious in-group identity promotes ethnocentrism, & others' as competition for resources.
In addition, religious racism is tied to basic life values of social conformity and respect for tradition. Abstract. Keywords: ethnicity/race, health and healthcare, disparities, explicit and implicit bias, intergroup processes Across a broad spectrum of mental and physical illnesses, members of socially disadvantaged groups typically experience poorer physical and mental health than members of socially advantaged groups.
Dasgupta, N. () Implicit attitudes and beliefs adapt to situations: A decade of research on the malleability of implicit prejudice, stereotypes, and the self-concept.
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology – Based on studies conducted in laboratory settings, the implicit-bias theory predicts greater use of force against Blacks by police and the counter-bias theory would predict lesser use of force against Blacks.
Field studies, too, have examined the relationship between subject race and police use of force.