Approximately 60 percent of women who experience post-abortion sequelae report suicidal ideation, with 28 percent actually attempting suicide, of which half attempted suicide two or more times.
Several neurodegenerative disorders also may present with parkinsonism and are sometimes referred to as "atypical parkinsonism" or "Parkinson plus" syndromes illnesses with parkinsonism plus some other features distinguishing them from PD.
They include multiple system atrophyprogressive supranuclear palsycorticobasal degenerationand dementia with Lewy bodies DLB. In contrast to Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease presents most commonly with memory loss, and the cardinal signs of Parkinson's disease slowness, tremor, stiffness, and postural instability are not normal features of Alzheimer's.
Dementia with Lewy bodies is another synucleinopathy and it has close pathological similarities with PD, especially with the subset of PD cases with dementia known as Parkinson's disease dementia. Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease The most recognizable symptoms in Parkinson's disease are movement "motor" related.
Some of these non-motor symptoms may be present at the time of diagnosis. Parkinsonian gait Four motor symptoms are considered cardinal in PD: A feature of tremor is pill-rolling, the tendency of the index finger and thumb to touch and perform together a circular movement.
Performance of sequential and simultaneous movement is impaired. It leads to particular difficulty in carrying out two independent motor activities at the same time and can be made worse by emotional stress or concurrent illnesses.
Paradoxically patients with Parkinson's disease can often ride a bicycle or climb stairs more easily than walk on a level. While most physicians may readily notice bradykinesia, formal assessment requires a patient to do repetitive movements with their fingers and feet.
Postural instability is typical in the later stages of the disease, leading to impaired balance and frequent falls,  and secondarily to bone fracturesloss of confidence, and reduced mobility. Freezing of gait brief arrests when the feet seem to get stuck to the floor, especially on turning or changing directiona slurred monotonous quiet voice, mask-like facial expression, and handwriting that gets smaller and smaller are other common signs.
This includes disorders of cognition, mood, behavior, and thought. The dopamine dysregulation syndrome — with wanting of medication leading to overusage — is a rare complication of levodopa use Giovannoni, et al.
Behavior and mood alterations are more common in PD without cognitive impairment than in the general population, and are usually present in PD with dementia.
The most frequent mood difficulties are depressionapathyand anxiety.
Punding in which complicated repetitive aimless stereotyped behaviors occur for many hours is another disturbance caused by anti-Parkinson medication.
Auditory hallucinations are uncommon in PD, and are rarely described as voices. It is now believed that psychosis is an integral part of the disease. A psychosis with delusions and associated delirium is a recognized complication of anti-Parkinson drug treatment and may also be caused by urinary tract infections as frequently occurs in the fragile elderlybut drugs and infection are not the only factors, and underlying brain pathology or changes in neurotransmitters or their receptors e.
A Continuum of Mood States. Many people are puzzled by the term "Unipolar Depression," which is another term for Major Depression. The term "Unipolar Depression" is used here to differentiate Major Depression from the other famous sort of depression, Bipolar (or Manic) Depression, which is a . Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. The symptoms generally come on slowly over time. Early in the disease, the most obvious are shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking. Thinking and behavioral problems may also occur. Dementia becomes common in the advanced stages of the. Postpartum Depression is a serious illness and without proper treatment and attention the children born to women who develop Postpartum Disease may grow up without proper care and in the most serious of cases, some children die of neglect or abuse/5(7).
Sleep problems are a feature of the disease and can be worsened by medications. Causes of Parkinson's disease Environmental factors Exposure to pesticides and a history of head injury have each been linked with Parkinson disease PDbut the risks are modest.
Never having smoked cigarettes, and never drinking caffeinated beverages, are also associated with small increases in risk of developing PD. It has been suggested that some cases of PD may be caused by lysosome dysfunctions that reduce the ability of cells to break down alpha-synuclein.
The brown colour is positive immunohistochemistry staining for alpha-synuclein. This loss of neurons is accompanied by the death of astrocytes star-shaped glial cells and a significant increase in the number of microglia another type of glial cell in the substantia nigra.
These are known as the motoroculo-motorassociativelimbic and orbitofrontal circuits, with names indicating the main projection area of each circuit.
When a decision is made to perform a particular action, inhibition is reduced for the required motor system, thereby releasing it for activation. Dopamine acts to facilitate this release of inhibition, so high levels of dopamine function tend to promote motor activity, while low levels of dopamine function, such as occur in PD, demand greater exertions of effort for any given movement.
Thus, the net effect of dopamine depletion is to produce hypokinesiaan overall reduction in motor output. This insoluble protein accumulates inside neurones forming inclusions called Lewy bodies.Using a standardized statistical technique for combining the results of multiple studies, the meta-analysis revealed that women with a history of abortion face higher rates of anxiety (34 percent higher) and depression (37 percent higher), heavier alcohol use ( percent higher) and marijuana use ( percent higher), and higher rates of suicidal behavior ( percent higher).
If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to Essay about An Investigation of Postpartum Depression Words | 5 Pages Depression scores were actually higher at 8 months of pregnancy with % of the participants assessed as regardbouddhiste.com 01, View and download postpartum depression essays examples/10().
Insanity defense is probably one of the most controversial of all criminal defense strategies, and at the same time is one of the least used. In many cases when it has been used it has tended to cause public debate.
The insanity defense confirms that the criminal defendant is not guilty because of his insanity. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.
Oxytocin is a hormone that plays an important role in the female reproductive system, particularly with childbirth and breast-feeding.
Known as the love hormone, oxytocin influences social. Often sold under the brand name Wellbutrin, bupropion is mainly used to treat depression. It can also help people to stop smoking.
Some research suggests that bupropion can have additional.