Antibiotic resistant bacteria essay

However, certain bacteria, the actinomycetes, produce antibiotics such as streptomycin and nocardicin; others live symbiotically in the guts of animals including humans or elsewhere in their bodies, or on the roots of certain plants, converting nitrogen into a usable form. Bacteria put the tang in yogurt and the sour in sourdough bread; bacteria help to break down dead organic matter; bacteria make up the base of the food web in many environments.

Antibiotic resistant bacteria essay

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Resistance Genes Effect of Composting on the Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Resistance Genes in Cattle Manure Introduction Antibiotic resistance is a cause for growing concern because of its increasing prevalence, costs to the economy and disastrous impacts on human health [1].

The transmittance of antibiotic resistance genes has enabled livestock to be a source of resistant infections in humans. The presence of excreted residual of antibiotic resistance genes is of particular concern because of horizontal gene transfer.

It has been identified by the Food Safety Modernization Act FSMA as a method of reducing the [11] Three stages of compost communities have been identified [12] tetW and sul1were also discovered.

This study examines three different composting set ups from antibiotic fed cattle. Both dairy and beef manure was collected and composted following the static and turned FSMA guidelines —an anaerobic static — in bench scale composting tumblers [11].

This trial focused only on static, dairy manure compost but still compared medicated and untreated manure. The final trial was a full-scale and focused only on static composting of dairy manure with and without antibiotics. Macrolide, sulfonamide, lincosamide, tetracycline, cephalosporin class antibiotics are regularly used in the cattle industry have been classified as such as tylosin, chlorotetracycline, sulfamethazine, pirlimycin, cephapirin have been classified as which are all regularly used in the cattle industry have been shown to remain in soils for up to XX time.

CITE Talk about different types of antibiotics and how ours fit in the WHO standards Antibiotic resistance is then environmentally selected for and can propagate through the system via horizontal gene transfer.

Why intl1, sul1, tetW — qpcr Compost was analyzed for manure-derived isolates using MacConkey agar because it selectively factors gram negative enteric bacteria [CITE]. Ten isolate coliforms were then chosen from each of the finished composts and subjected to Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion to determine their resistance profiles.


The purpose of this study was to determine the affect manure composting had on the antibiotic resistance gene abundance and community of medicated beef and dairy cattle. Beef steers are typically treated fed antibiotics as a mix in their diet to prevent disease, treat disorders and ensure they grow quickly.

Cattle were housed individually and fed a basal diet of corn silage. All were given free choice of water and ad libitum grain and hay. Nine Hereford steers were fed a basal diet of corn silage and medicated or non-medicated grain mix.

Three steers were each fed mg of chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine per day, three were fed 11 mg Tylosin per kg feed, and three were fed a non-medicated diet. Each steer was fed their respective diet for seven days. Feces and urine were collected from Day 3 to 7 post- treatment. Nine dairy cows were selected for this study; six at peak lactation and three at the end of their current lactation cycle.

Three cows were treated with two intermammary doses of 50 mg of pirlimycin at peak lactation; three cows received a single intermammary dose of mg cephapirin at the end of lactation and three received no antibiotic intervention.

Urine and feces were collected and composited to obtain a homogenous mixture for each cattle treatment and manure type. Static composters were aerated using an air pump and perforated polyvinyl chloride PVC pipes.

Turned composters were mixed well by hand daily. Samples were collected on days 0, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and On day 0 samples were also taken of each non-composted, raw manure for comparison with the finished composts.

The heat-controlled trial used dairy manure with and without pirlimycin and cephapirin and used the static composting method. Composters were set up in triplicate for a total of 6 composters.

Antibiotic resistant bacteria essay

In order to achieve a C: Each composter was aerated using an air pump Model: The pump was on for 5 min every hour during the thermophilic phase and then for 1 min every hour during the mesophilic phase. Temperature sensors were placed in two locations in each composter to record and monitor moisture and temperature over time.

The compost was allowed to self-heat for the first 72 hours. Samples were collected on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 and raw manure samples were collected on day 0 for comparison with finished composts. The full-scale composting occurred outdoors at Kentland Farm in southwest Virginia.

The compost piles were formed in early January. Dairy manure with and without pirlimycin and cephapirin antibiotic treatment was mixed with alfalfa hay and sawdust at a ratio of 4: N ratio of A stockpile of antibiotic manure without any amendments or aeration was also formed in a metal container to serve as a non-composted positive control.

Compost and stockpile samples were taken on days 0, 4, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, and Work on antibiotic-catabolizing bacteria was reported in the s, but the studies of Dantas and colleagues have exposed the full extent and distribution of degradation/r genes in the environment and further verified the roles played by reservoirs of soil bacteria as origins of antibiotic r genes.

Open Document. Below is an essay on "What Can We Do About Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria?" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

Increased Prevalence Of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Biology Essay Many people like to define bacteria as a germ, but in reality germs are a form of bacteria.

antibiotic resistant-bacteria and that these bacteria pose a serious threat to global health. ASSESSMENT Students’ responses to the questions on the student sheet should incorporate the points discussed in the answers (included in this section).

Antibiotic resistant bacteria essay

In addition, consider Rise of the Superbugs (a). Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Bacteria’s are one-celled organisms that were discovered in by Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek. Many people like to define bacteria as a germ, but in reality germs are a form of bacteria. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Essay - Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria “Antibiotics" is the name given to the group of chemicals, particularly in medicine, that stop or inhibit the growth of, microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, and parasites, or that kill the microorganism.

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