Metaphysics substance, cause, form, potentiality Nicomachean Ethics soul, happiness, virtue, friendship Eudemain Ethics Politics best states, utopias, constitutions, revolutions Rhetoric elements of forensic and political debate Poetics tragedy, epic poetry 3. From their perspective, logic and reasoning was the chief preparatory instrument of scientific investigation. Aristotle himself, however, uses the term "logic" as equivalent to verbal reasoning.
The NE is in 10 books, and is the most widely read of Aristotle's ethical treatises. Eudemian Ethicsoften abbreviated as the EE. Magna Moraliaoften abbreviated as the MM. The exact origins of these texts is unclear, although they were already considered the works of Aristotle in ancient times.
Textual oddities suggest that they may not have been put in Aristotle ethics current form by Aristotle himself. The authenticity of the Magna Moralia has been doubted,  whereas almost no modern scholar doubts that Aristotle wrote the Nicomachean Ethics and the Eudemian Ethics himself, even if an editor also played some part in giving us those texts in their current forms.
The Nicomachean Ethics has received the most scholarly attention, and is the most easily available to Aristotle ethics readers in many different translations and editions. Some critics consider the Eudemian Ethics to be "less mature," while others, such as Kenny contend that the Eudemian Ethics is the more mature, and therefore later, work.
Traditionally it was believed that the Nicomachean Ethics and the Eudemian Ethics were either edited by or dedicated to Aristotle's son and pupil Nicomachus and his disciple Eudemus, respectively, although the works themselves do not explain the source of their names.
Although Aristotle's father was also called Nicomachus, Aristotle's son was the next leader of Aristotle's school, the Lyceumand in ancient times he was already associated with this work. Aristotle's Ethics also states that the good of the individual is subordinate to the good of the city-state, or polis.
Fragments also survive from Aristotle's Protrepticusanother work which dealt with ethics. Aristotle as a Socratic[ edit ] Some scholars regarded Aristotle as a Socratic thinker. While Socrates left no written works, and Plato wrote dialogues and a few letters, Aristotle wrote treatises in which he sets forth philosophical doctrines directly.
To be more precise, Aristotle did write dialogues, but they unfortunately survive only in fragments. Aristotle dealt with this same question but giving it two names, "the political" or Politics and "the ethical" Ethicsboth with Politics being the name for the two together as the more important part.
The original Socratic questioning on ethics started at least partly as a response to sophismwhich was a popular style of education and speech at the time. Sophism emphasized rhetoricand argument, and therefore often involved criticism of traditional Greek religion and flirtation with moral relativism.
It is sometimes referred to in comparison to later ethical theories as a "character based ethics". Like Plato and Socrates he emphasized the importance of reason for human happiness, and that there were logical and natural reasons for humans to behave virtuously, and try to become virtuous.
Aristotle's treatment of the subject is distinct in several ways from that found in Plato's Socratic dialogues. Aristotle's presentation is obviously different from Plato's because he does not write in dialoguesbut in treatises.
Apart from this difference, Aristotle explicitly stated that his presentation was different from Plato's because he started from whatever could be agreed upon by well brought-up gentlemen, and not from any attempt to develop a general theory of what makes anything good.
He explained that it was necessary not to aim at too much accuracy at the starting point of any discussion to do with controversial matters such as those concerning what is just or what is beautiful.
Nevertheless, like Plato he eventually says that all the highest forms of the moral virtues require each other, and all require intellectual virtue, and in effect that the happiest and most virtuous life is that of a philosopher.
He defines happiness in terms of this theory as an actuality energeia ; the virtues which allow happiness and enjoyment of the best and most constant pleasures are dynamic-but-stable dispositions hexeis which are developed through habituation; and this pleasure in turn is another actuality that compliments the actuality of happy living.
For a person to become virtuous, he can't simply study what virtue is, but must actually do virtuous things. In the Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle says explicitly that one must begin with what is familiar to us, and "the that" or "the fact that" NE I.
Ancient commentators agree that what Aristotle means here is that his treatise must rely upon practical, everyday knowledge of virtuous actions as the starting points of his inquiry, and that he is supposing that his readers have some kind of experience-based understanding of such actions, and that they value noble and just actions to at least some degree.
In fact, some regard his ethical inquiries as using a method that relies upon popular opinion his so-called "endoxic method" from the Grk. There is some dispute, however, about exactly how such common conceptions fit into Aristotle's method in his ethical treatises,  particularly since he also makes use of more formal arguments, especially the so-called "function argument," which is described below.
Aristotle describes popular accounts about what kind of life would be a happy one by classifying them into three most common types: To reach his own conclusion about the best life, however, Aristotle tries to isolate the function of humans.
The argument he develops here is accordingly widely known as "the function argument," and is among the most-discussed arguments made by any ancient philosopher.
Thus neither of these characteristics is particular to humans. According to Aristotle, what remains and what is distinctively human is reason.
Thus he concludes that the human function is some kind of excellent exercise of the intellect. And, since Aristotle thinks that practical wisdom rules over the character excellences, exercising such excellences is one way to exercise reason and thus fulfill the human function.
One common objection to Aristotle's function argument is that it uses descriptive or factual premises to derive conclusions about what is good. Moral virtue[ edit ] Moral virtue, or excellence of character, is the disposition Grk hexis to act excellently, which a person develops partly as a result of his upbringing, and partly as a result of his habit of action.
Aristotle develops his analysis of character in Book II of the Nicomachean Ethics, where he makes this argument that character arises from habit—likening ethical character to a skill that is acquired through practice, such as learning a musical instrument.Aristotle considered ethics to be a practical rather than theoretical study, i.e., one aimed at becoming good and doing good rather than knowing for its own sake.
He wrote several treatises on ethics, including most notably, the Nicomachean Ethics. Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.
Aristotle (/ ˈ ær ɪ ˌ s t ɒ t əl /; Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs, pronounced [aristotélɛːs]; – BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical regardbouddhiste.com with Plato, he is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy".Aristotle provided a complex and harmonious synthesis of the various.
Aristotle conceives of ethical theory as a field distinct from the theoretical sciences. Its methodology must match its subject matter—good action—and must respect the fact that in this field many generalizations hold only for the most part. Aristotle first used the term ethics to name a field of study developed by his predecessors Socrates and regardbouddhiste.comophical ethics is the attempt to offer a rational response to the question of how humans should best live.
Aristotle regarded ethics and politics as two related but separate fields of study, since ethics examines the good of the individual, while politics examines the good of.
quotes from Aristotle: 'Knowing yourself is the beginning of all wisdom.', 'It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it.', and 'What is a friend? A single soul dwelling in two bodies.'.