Main Page We have at last arrived at the time when we can talk about truly global history! European Exploration Expands A. The compass, more accurate maps, the astrolabe used to determine latitudeimproved rudder and sails - all tranferred from Asia - contributed to the western Europe's ability to make long distance sailing expeditions.
Individual national and expansion histories referred to each other in varying degrees at different times but often also reinforced each other. Transfer processes within Europe and in the colonies show that not only genuine colonial powers such as Spain and England, but also "latecomers" such as Germany participated in the historical process of colonial expansion with which Europe decisively shaped world history.
In turn, this process also clearly shaped Europe itself. Introduction In world history, no continent has possessed so many different forms of colonies and none has so incomparably defined access to the world by means of a civilising mission as a secular programme as did modern Europe.
A similar claim was never staked out in this form by a world empire of Antiquity or a non-European colonial power in the modern period, such as Japan or the USA. The extraordinary continuity of Chinese colonialism or that of the Aztecs in Central America before the Spaniards arrived is indeed structurally comparable to modern European expansion.
But similar to the Phoenician and the Roman empires, the phenomenon of expansion usually ended with colonisation and not in colonial development.
The imperial expansion since about was not a European invention but its chronological and spatial dimension was as unique as the variety of colonial methods of rule.
It is characteristic that the impetus for colonialism was often derived as an answer to European history itself. This includes capitalist striving for profit, the colonies as valves for overpopulation, the spirit of exploration, scientific interest, and religious and ideological impulses up to Social-Darwinistic and racist motives.
Colonialist urges of this type do not explain the expansionistic economic, military and other forces in the periphery that compelled the governments of the mother countries into a defensive pressing forward.
What is now understood as globalisation has a critical background in the world historical involvement of the non-European sphere from the Early Modern Period up and into the period of decolonisation.
No European country remained exempt — all directly or indirectly participated in the colonial division of the world. The Treaty of Tordesillas put global power thinking into words that perceived of colonial possessions as a political, economic and cultural right, last not least even as an obligation to a civilizing mission that was only definitively shaken with the independence of India in This turns the simultaneity and multitude of European colonialisms and imperialisms into a border-bridging experience.
Few transnational specifics of European history illustrate the diversity of a European consciousness this clearly. But what was colonialism?
If one looks back at the essential elements in the thought of the Spanish world empire since the 16th century, it was similar to that of the English and Portuguese up to the most recent time because of the often claimed idea that the European nations created their empires themselves without the participation of others.
Spain's power was only definitively broken with the Treaty of Paris in 2which ended the Seven Years' War and solidified British colonial supremacy.
It also revealed the entanglement between Europe and the American continent because the seed had been sown for the independence struggle of the United States as well as the revolutions in Central and South America between and After human and citizens rights had been fought for during the French Revolution, the first Black republic in world history arose in from a slave revolt in Haiti.
Colonialism was by no means a one-dimensional affair with a simply European orientation and European discoverers such as Columbus and Vasco da Gama — [ ]who succeeded in making the first East India voyage in less than a decade after Instead, colonialism should be understood as a dynamic interaction in the context of which the colonial empires and the individual colonies massively influenced the historical development of their European mother countries.
This even extended to the programmes of rulers' titles. Subsequent to da Gama successfully establishing trade relations with the Southwest Indian spice port of Calicutking Manuel I — not only styled himself king of Portugal, but also lord of ArabiaPersia and India.
Like the Portuguese world empire, the Spanish arrived in all of Europe because European and non-European immigrants participated as much as did the natives in the colonies.
The Spanish empire can hardly be imagined without Belgians, Italians and Chinese, while commerce and administration in the Portuguese empire was shaped to a significant degree by Germans, Flemings, Moslems and Jews.
It has existed in almost all periods of world history in different degrees of expression. Already inthe Brazilian sociologist Gilberto Freyre stated the thesis that the Portuguese as the oldest European colonial nation had a special gift for expansion in his controversial book Casa-grande e Senzala The Masters and the Slaves.
It consisted of peacefully intermingling the cultures without racism and colonial massacres. Using the example of Brazilhe rationalized colonial paternalism with the allegedly successful relationship between masters and slaves.
But other colonial powers also claimed this for themselves. However, that the colonies became an integral part of the mother country, that therefore the colonial nation is indivisible, at home on several continents and, thus, incapable of doing any fundamental evil, can be shown to be part of the European colonial ideology since its earliest beginnings.
Intellectual transfer processes had already taken place at this time, in the Age of Enlightenment most noticeably in the mutual influence of Adam Smith —Denis Diderot —Johann Gottfried Herder — [ ] and their contemporaries.
Though slavery and cosmopolitanism could theoretically not be brought to a common denominator, in practice the conquest explained its legitimacy since the 16th century with its own success. The Dutch, English, Portuguese, Spanish, French and Russian colonial enterprises, which each surveyed the world in its own manner with soldiers, scientists, merchants and missionaries, shared the common perception of the "Other" on the basis of the presumed cultural superiority of the "Self".
As different as the spread of Christianity proceeded with the nonconformist, dissenting elements of Protestantism in North America and the Catholic forces in South America so, too, was the result different in the end.
Spain, for example, was not able to use Latin America for a profitable export economy, but by contrast the British succeeded in monopolising the slave trade as a most lucrative long-distance business. When, during the course of the 19th century, the Italians, Belgians and Germans raised a claim to their share of the world in addition to the old colonial powers, the term "Imperialism" became an ideologically loaded and overall imprecise, but probably irreplaceable historiographical concept.
That is what makes this period so unique in European history, though measured against other criteria, such as time and space, it was not more spectacular than previous ones. Thus, the European conquest of North and South America in the 16th and 17th centuries or of India in the 18th and early 19th centuries was no less incisive in its spatial dimension or the number of people brought under European rule as was the "Scramble for Africa" that became synonymous with the unsystematic and overly hasty intervention of Europeans in the entire African continent.
But unlike in earlier periods, a broad European public for the first time participated politically, economically and culturally directly in the process of that expansion.
It had deep-reaching effects on the historical development of the European societies themselves, which is reflected, for example, in the professional careers of politicians, diplomats and high-ranking military men.Analyze changes and continuities in long-distance migrations in the period from to Be sure to include specific examples from at least TWO different world regions.
Analyze continuities and changes in trade networks between Africa and . World War I began in Its inception resulted from many trends in European society, culture, and diplomacy during the late 19th century.
In between these boundaries—the one opening a new set of trends, the other bringing long-standing tensions to a head—much of modern Europe was defined. Analyze changes and continuities in long-distance migrations in the period from to Be sure to include specific examples from at least TWO different world regions.
Comp. Analyze changes and continuities in long-distance migrations in the period from to Be sure to include specific examples from at least TWO different world regions. Analyze similarities and differences in the rise of TWO of the following empires. Feminization of migration.
The traditional pattern of migration within and from Africa — male-dominated, long-term, and long-distance — is increasingly becoming feminized. Anecdotal evidence reveals a striking increase in migration by women, who had traditionally remained at home while men moved around in search of paid work.
Analyze continuities and changes in labor systems between and in ONE of the following regions: Latin America and the Caribbean, Oceania, Sub-Saharan Africa. Analyze the changes and continuities in long-distance migrations in the period from to