The regulators of human skin pigmentation biology essay

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The regulators of human skin pigmentation biology essay

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders.

However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy.


UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually.

Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor MC1R gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance.

The regulators of human skin pigmentation biology essay

Ultraviolet radiation, skin, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, pigmentation, cancer, melanin, melanocortin 1 receptor 1. Skin is organized into two primary layers, epidermis and dermis, which together are made up of epithelial, mesenchymal, glandular and neurovascular components.

As such, epidermal biological and physical characteristics play an enormous role in resistance to environmental stressors such as infectious pathogens, chemical agents and UV [ 1 — 6 ].

Keratinocytes are the most abundant cells in the epidermis and are characterized by their expression of cytokeratins and formation of desmosomes and tight junctions with each other to form an effective physicochemical barrier. The dermis, derived from mesoderm, underlies the epidermis and harbors cutaneous structures including hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous glands and sweat glands.

The dermis also contains abundant immune cells and fibroblasts, which actively participate in many physiologic responses in the skin.

The regulators of human skin pigmentation biology essay

The epidermis, demarcated from the dermis by a basement membrane, is organized into functional layers defined largely by keratinocyte characteristics such as size, shape, nucleation and keratin expression [ 7 ] Figure 1.

Nascent epidermal keratinocytes formed as a result of cell division by keratinocyte stem cells in the stratum basale undergo a programmed differentiation as they migrate outward toward the surface of the skin to eventually form corneocytes, which are tightly-linked dead but intact cells that form the principle barrier of the outermost epidermal layer [ 89 ].Review Melanin and nicotine: A review of the literature Valerie B.

Yerger, Ruth E. Malone [Received 18 November ; accepted 15 August ] The role of melanin in nicotine uptake and metabolism has received little attention.

To conclude there are many different methods of regulating human skin pigmentation and also different pathways via which different hormones and peptides affect human skin pigmentation.

One of the major regulators in human skin pigmentation are peptides derived from POMC such as ACTH and a-MSH which are stimulated by the MC-1R pathway and also.

Free Essays, Assignments an Papers for College Students | Artscolumbia skin color variation is primarily determined by the type and amount of melanin pigment in the skin. skin color variation likely evolved in response to differences in the intensity of sunlight around the world.

In summary, pigmentation of human skin has dramatic consequences at a variety of distinct levels, such as social attraction and protection from the environment. The skin is responsive to many factors that regulate its structure and appearance in an extremely complex manner. Nanoparticles Of Liquid Crystalline Phase Enable Skin Delivery Biology Essay.

Nanoparticles Of Liquid Crystalline Phase Enable Skin Delivery Biology Essay. or any similar topic only for you. Order now. 1. Introduction The Regulators Of Human Skin Pigmentation Biology Essay ;.

Also releases regulators of anterior pituitary hormone release made by the hypothalamus. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) increases skin pigmentation in animals its exact role in humans is unknown Chapter The Endocrine System.

The Biology of Skin Color | HHMI BioInteractive